Review of Utilization Management of Groundwater at Risk of Salinization

Polemio M., Zuffianò L.E., 2020, Review of Utilization Management of Groundwater at Risk of Salinization, Journal of water resources planning and management 146 (2020): 1–20. doi_10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943- 5452.0001278,

Groundwater salinization caused by natural and anthropogenic processes can increase the salinity above the concentrations recommended for specific uses or environments. Approximately 16% of the total land area on Earth suffers from groundwater salinization, potentially creating significant social, economic, and environmental problems. Global bibliographical research focusing on studies related to the utilization and management of salinization-threatened groundwater was conducted. A database of 520 papers from 85 countries was compiled and discussed. The main salinization sources were identified, and seawater intrusion is the primary studied phenomenon. This paper classifies different state-of-the-art approaches for protecting groundwater resources from salinization. Practical scientific solutions, from technical and engineering solutions to rules or regulatory instruments, are discussed from a global perspective. As salinization risk becomes a relevant problem, more complex initiatives should be applied to meet water demands while minimizing disadvantages. From the lowest to the highest complexity, three approaches were defined_ the engineering approach, the discharge management approach, and the water and land management approach. The discussion presents directions for future research opportunities.

Data from