A review on hypogene caves in Italy

Jo De Waele, Sandro Galdenzi, Giuliana Madonia, Marco Menichetti, Mario Parise, Leonardo Piccini, Laura Sanna, Francesco Sauro, Paola Tognini, Marco Vattano, Bartolomeo Vigna, 2014, A review on hypogene caves in Italy, Hypogene Cave Morphologies Conference, pp. 28–30, San Salvador, Bahamas, February 2-7, 2014,
URL: http://www.cnr.it/prodotto/i/292633

Although hypogene cave systems have been described since the beginning of the 20th century, the importance in speleogenesis of ascending fluids that acquired their aggressiveness from in-depth sources has been fully realized only in the last decades. Aggressiveness of waters can be related to carbonic and sulfuric acids and the related corrosion-dissolution processes give rise to different types of caves and underground morphologies. The abundance of hydrothermal springs and associated travertine deposits, and the widespread interaction between volcanic or sub-volcanic phenomena and karst in many sectors of the Italian peninsula are a strong evidence of hypogene speleogenesis. Furthermore, researches on secondary minerals have allowed to discover hypogene caves formed by highly acidic vapors in subaerial environments, also showing that most of these caves have extremely rich mineral associations.

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