Groundwater resources at salinisation risk_ from survey to management

Maurizio Polemio, Livia Emanuela Zuffianò, 2018, Groundwater resources at salinisation risk_ from survey to management, 45th IAH Congress-Groundwater and life, pp. 363–363, Daejeon, Korea, 9-14 September 2018,

All natural waters contain dissolved minerals from interactions with atmospheric and soil gases, mixing with other solutions, and/or interactions with the biosphere and lithosphere. In many cases, these processes resultin natural waters containing solute or salinity above concentrations recommended for a specified use, which creates significant social and economic problems. Groundwater salinisation can be caused by natural phenomena and anthropogenic activities. For the former case, we can distinguish terrestrial and marine phenomena. Approximately 16% of the total are a of continental earth is potentially in volvedin groundwater salinisation. Seawater intrusion can be considered to be the primary phenomenon for study interms of groundwater salinisation. Three schematic approaches to the protection of groundwater via salinisation mitigation and/or groundwater salinity improvement are described; these approaches are the engineering approach, the discharge management approach, and the water and land management approach. The engineering approach is realised with the purpose of controlling the salinisation, optimising the well discharge with specific technical solutions and/or completing works to improve the quality and/or quantity of the discharged fresh groundwater. The discharge management approach encompasses at least an entire coastal aquifer and defines rules concerning groundwater utilisation and well discharge. The water and land management approach should be applied on there gional scale. The practical study of Apulian karstic coastal aquifers is discussed in detail. Previously experienced management difficultie sare described, as well as a proposed multi-methodological approach based on monitoring networks, the spatiotemporal analysis of groundwater quality changes, and multiparameter well logging. The core of this approach is the definition of the salinity threshold value be tween pure fresh groundwater and any fresh and saline groundwater mixture. The basic or single tools were defined to be simple, quick and cost-effective to be applicable to the widestrange of situations.

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